Current Issue


A good and bright thought

Un gând bun și luminos


Mihai Ralea – creator and visionary in psychology and culture

Mihai Ralea- creator și vizionar în psihologie și cultură



Mihai Ralea remains in the consciousness of specialists as an exceptional personality with a rich scientific contribution to the development of and the elaboration of many innovative ideas for a series of fields of culture. An unsurpassed creator and visionary, with a vast work he marked the orientation of many scientific fields and laid the foundations of modern psychology.


Impact of emotional vulnerabilities on the students’ engagement in online courses during the lockdown period in SARS-COV2 pandemic crisis



Our study investigated the association between the severity of impact of the SARS-COV2 pandemic crisis, the level of vulnerability (depression, anxiety, anger-hostility and somatic symptoms), emotional regulation (cognitive reappraisal and emotional suppression) and the level of engagement in online courses at the beginning of the SARS-COV2 crisis, during the lockdown period. A number of 931 participants, students in various Romanian universities, completed measures for the impact of events, emotional symptoms, emotional regulation and engagement in online course. The correlations show that the impact of the pandemic as traumatic event was associated with higher levels of vulnerability to psychopathology in our sample but did not have a highly negative impact on student engagement in online education. In turn, higher severity of psychopathological symptoms, especially hostility, was associated with lower engagement. Emotional regulation strategies had only a small effect on both vulnerability to psychopathology and trauma effects, with cognitive reappraisal being associated with higher engagement in online education.


emotional vulnerability, impact of COVID-19, trauma, student engagement, online courses

Forming Special Education Teachers during the Pandemic: New Teachers’ Sense of Self Efficacy

Gabriela WALKER, Kathleen KLINGER, Nilsa THORSOS


This paper examines special education new-teacher perceptions about the impact of shifting from teaching children with disabilities in person to a remote learning delivery. The Covid-19 pandemic disrupted formal education and shifted special education service delivery to a ‘remote modality’. Health restrictions and community lockdowns literally pushed teachers into online delivery systems beyond their own learning experiences and into their students’ homes. The research methodology employed is a mixed methodology approach, where the responses from a sixopen-question survey were coded and quantified. Based on these results, administrators and policy makers have to consider changes to accommodate this paradigm shift to better serve students with disabilities, a matter of educational equity and social justice.


COVID-19 pandemic, disability, teacher preparation programs, self-efficacy

Online pedagogical practice in special education. Students’ perspective

Practica pedagogică online în învățământul special. Perspectiva studenților

Rucsandra HOSSU, Lavinia BALACI


The aim of this study is to investigate students’ perceptions of pedagogical practice in special education during online teaching. A number of 24 students from the “Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad, specialization Special Psycho-pedagogy who attended online activities in classes with severe, profound and multiple mental disabilities completed a questionnaire and provided feedback related to the virtual school. The perception of the students participating in the pedagogical practice is that the virtual educational environment is an opportunity for special education, but only temporarily.


university students, pedagogical practice, online teaching, special education

The Sign Language Interpreter in the Pandemic Context: Challenges and Opportunities

Interpretul de limba semnelor în contextul pandemic: provocări și oportunități

Ioana TUFAR, Ramona TRÂNCA


This study explores the situation of Sign Language interpreters in Romania during the Covid-19 pandemic from a pragmatic perspective. After a theoretic framework about Sign Language interpreting and competences of the interpreters, we described the data of our investigation. Results of the study indicate changes in Sign Language practice during Covid-19 pandemic, opportunities and challenges faced by interpreters during this period, interpretation requests, distance work with the sub-themes: platforms used, stressors, home interpretation with difficult aspects and advantages, balance between personal and professional life.


Sign Language, interpreter, Covid-19, interpreting process, competencies, challenges

A cognitive intervention program for reduction of stress in parents of children with intellectual and multiple disabilities: the effect on behavior problems and program adaptation through COVID-19 pandemic

Un program de intervenţie cognitivă pentru reducerea distresului la părinţii copiilor cu dizabilităţi intelectuale şi multiple: efectul asupra problemelor de comportament și adaptarea programului la pandemia COVID-19

Alexandru TIBA, Cezar MORAR


Much evidence suggests that parents of children with special needs have elevated levels of stress when confronting with children’s problems. This article presents a validation of a multimodal cognitive program for reducing parental stress in parents and children behavior problems of children with special needs that can be applied during COVID19 pandemic. A study including 63 parents of children with special needs shows that the program is effective both in reducing parental stress and children’s behavior problems reported by parents. Recommendations for the online use of the program and adaptations to the COVID-19 pandemic characteristics are made.


COVID-19 pandemic, stress, cognitive therapy, parents, disabilities, behavior problems

The effects of COVID-19 pandemic on stress and difficulties in foster parents of children with intellectual disabilities: effects of the online specialized support

Efectele pandemiei COVID-19 asupra stresului și dificultăților părinților de plasament ai copiilor cu dizabilități intelectuale: efectul suportului online specializat

Alexandru TIBA, Andreea VĂDINEANU, Ildiko SZANTO


Foster care of children with intellectual disabilities raises important problems. Much evidence suggests that foster parents of children with special needs face elevated levels of stress and care difficulties. We examined the differences between foster parents who received and those who did not receive online support during the COVID-19 pandemic in the level of emotional mental health, objective and subjective care stress. Results showed that helpful online support during the COVID-19 pandemic is significantly related with fewer children’s problem behaviours. Actions related to stress in foster care of children with disabilities during COVID-19 pandemic are recommended.


COVID-19 pandemic, stress, parents, disabilities, behaviour problems, online support

Psycho-pedagogical assistance to students with disabilities in conditions of covid-19 pandemic

Asistența psihopedagogică elevilor cu dizabilități în condițiile pademiei cu COVID-19



In this article, we will report the socio-emotional problems of students with disabilities, which impede the optimal development of the educational process in the crisis situation caused by the pandemic with Covid-19, which is transited by a whole world. The evolution of the epidemiological situation of COVID-19 infection has led to the suspension of the educational process in general and special education institutions in the country.
In this context, we will focus on the remote organization of psychological care for children / students with
disabilities, parents, teachers. The purpose of psychological assistance in the context of suspending the educational process is both to ensure psychoeducation, emotional stability of beneficiaries and to manage behavior and psychological mechanisms to get out of the crisis.


pandemic, psychological assistance, relationships, disability, inclusive education

Interactive Whiteboard Use for Developing Phonological Awareness in SEN Students

Utilizarea tablei interactive în activitățile de antrenament fonologic la elevii cu deficiență mintală



This paper considers the impact of using interactive whiteboards to promote phonological awareness among SEN students through whole-class online activities. Data collected suggests the tactile features of IWB, as well as the added game elements increase the students’ learning motivation and the task completion rate. The results indicate this specific type of technology has the potential to facilitate a better understanding of word structure in students with developmental / intellectual disabilities and it appears to motivate and engage them in learning more than traditional literacy activities.


phonological awareness, phonological awareness training, intellectual disability, special educational needs, technology, interactive whiteboards

Online speech therapy – interaction, efficiency, results

Terapia logopedică online – interacțiune, eficiență, rezultate

ANGHEL Elisabeta Elena


This article discusses some aspects of online speech therapy, regarding the interaction, effectiveness and outcome, the discussion being based on studies conducted both in terms of language disorders and in accordance with the presence of disability. As a base for the research, I have used the survey method, with a questionnaire applied to a number of 51 parents whose children have conducted online speech therapy sessions, mainly synchronously. The advantages and disadvantages of using online therapy are debated from the point of view of both the parent and the speech therapist. The importance of choosing the right therapeutic form (online or classic) being an inherent conclusion.


online speech therapy, interaction, efficiency, results, special educational needs, technology, language disorders

Strategies for developing communication skills in children with intellectual disabilities through the dynamic games



Young school-age for children with intellectual disabilities is rightly considered a period of major importance in the process of human personality formation. National and international experts in the field demonstrate, with theoretical and empirical arguments, that, at this age, the child’s various abilities are intensely developed, character traits are formed, the foundations of health are laid, taking place an upward evolution of the physical abilities so necessary for the effective involvement of the person in various forms of motor activity. In this context, starting from the socioeconomic particularities of the modern society, namely the physical education has the mission to ensure the practical realization of the right of every child to an unhindered, multilateral, full and continuous development.


communication, physical education, intellectual disabilities, games, young school-aged children


People with disabilities in the COVID era

Persoanele cu dizabilități in era COVID



People with disabilities are prone to health problems and face discrimination and stigma and these problems were exacerbated during the COVID-19 epidemic. People with disabilities have an increased risk of contracting COVID19 for several reasons, including due to difficulties in using basic protection measures and the need to comply with the requirements set for social distancing, and the risk of death due to COVID is estimated for persons with disabilities as being approximately double that of persons without disabilities. The society’s response to the COVID19 pandemic should also include disability as concern, protection of the rights and needs of people with disabilities, as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainability and Development


people with disabilities, COVID-19, pandemic, accessibility, inclusiveness

From Deafblindness to Multiple Sensory Impairment: a few explanatory notes on definition, terminology, and historical context

De la surdocecitate la deficienţa senzorială multiplă: câteva note explicative referitoare la definire, terminologie şi context istoric



In deafblindness (DB), the consequences of visual and hearing impairments are not additive, but multiplicative creating unique problems in information, communication and mobility, hence the need to recognize it as a distinct disability. There are three types of approaches that depend on several factors, taking into account the structure of educational and support services for people with DB/MSI and the nature of human, technological and financial resources. In our country, according to the law, the broadest approach is promoted, meaning the inclusion of other disabilities in addition to sight and/or hearing. In other countries there are other names that, depending on the context or user, are synonymous with DB. The huge variability of DB/MSI cases causes some specialists to refer to a spectrum disability in which there are different weights and different degrees of sensory loss, cognitive deficit, language impairments and/or somatic pathologies. All this individual “puzzle” generates a state of multi-handicap, which is reflected both in a specific pattern of learning and communication difficulties, and in the emergence of derived disabilities that hinder or obstruct the overall somatic and psychological development through restrictions on using the remaining hearing and sight.


disability, deafblindness, sensory deficits, multiple sensory impairment, accessibility, inclusiveness, special education

Education Policies for Students with Disabilities – Analysis and Perspectives

Politici în educație pentru elevii cu dizabilități – analiză și perspective

Emilia OPRIȘAN, Valentina VARTIC, Georgeta VESELU, Costinela-Ana IONIȚĂ


In education, finding ways to meet the learning needs of pupils with disabilities can be a challenge, especially in schools, regions and countries with limited resources. Inclusive education, which fully involves all pupils, including students with disabilities or children with other learning difficulties, has proven particularly effective in helping all students to learn, even if challenges remain in implementing systems intended to support them. We have analyzed in this work the implementation of inclusive education policies in ten European countries. The strategies and recommendations of the education practices adopted by each state can be useful for an analysis and improvement of the Romanian system of inclusive education. Romanian education has made real progresses in recent years in adopting appropriate strategies for the inclusion of people with disabilities, both from a legislative point of view and from the point of view of civil society involvement. There are, however, countless issues that require special attention and that can be improved.


disability, inclusive education, strategies, education policies

Time management. Challenges in the pandemic period

Managementul timpului. Provocări în perioada de pandemie

UREA Ionela Roxana, ADLER Carmen


The COVID 19 Pandemic has changed life to everybody. In current social context, marked by regulations and restrictions, each person, daily, shapes his/her time-table and approaches “time” from a new perspective.
The current paper tries to reveal the time management’ difficulties that teachers faced in on-line activities with pupils with deficiencies.
The conclusions that we found, based on a survey on 28 teachers first didactic degree, give the experts in special education the opportunity to a better: understanding of time – as educational resource; planning the educational activities; center on the utility, for pupils with deficiencies, of the taught information.


time management, teachers, pupils with deficiencies, special education

Creating a tolerant attitude – a remedy for the social inclusion of young people with disabilities in academia

Formarea atitudinii tolerante – remediu al incluziunii sociale a tinerilor cu dizabilități în mediul academic

RACU Aurelia, MUNTEANU Natalia


Inclusive education in academia has become a key concept worldwide. Inclusion in the academic environment does not start from scratch but is based on the principles and measures applied since the levels of previous stages of education (school, middle school, high school) with their specific adaptation. In order to optimize the possibilities of access in university education, inclusive education in the previous stages of schooling remains essential, which should be complemented with effective transition strategies. In order to achieve an effective socio-educational inclusion, it is essential to have coherence and concordance between the educational policy and the education system, on the one hand, and the practical ways of achieving it on the other hand.


inclusive education, educational policy, university education, inclusion

Art therapeutic practices for coping with stress in the conditions of COVID 19



The connection between people and art for centuries has provided an opportunity to stabilize the psychological state, their personal development and well-being. Today, in the conditions of “new normal” art therapy is desirable and offers us opportunities to deal with the crisis, reveals internal horizons for self-development. Positive thoughts and feelings fill a person when is engaged in creative activity. The present study marks the beginning of a study related to the impact of art therapy practices on a people emotional state in conditions of social isolation.


art therapy, coping with stress, COVID 19

Challenges for Parents of Children with Disabilities during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Provocările părinților copiilor cu dizabilități în timpul pandemiei de COVID-19

POPTEAN Corina Bianca


Parents of children with disabilities are under more pressure than typical children. Moreover, the pandemic has brought additional challenges to those already in the families of children with special needs. The present study investigated what were the most important challenges these parents faced (emotional, educational, time management, financial, recovery-related challenges), but also the fact that they became teachers for children with SEN, or even took over certain responsibilities from therapists so as not to stagnate the recovery of their children. Many of them have experienced episodes of depression and anxiety.


challenges, kids with disability, parents, COVID-19, depression, anxiety

Initial training of students – teachers in the field of inclusive education in the pandemic period

Formarea inițială a studenților – pedagogi în domeniul educației inclusive în perioada pandemică



Inclusive education in the Republic of Moldova is undergoing a qualitative transformation. Universities have the opportunity to direct their efforts to the competent construction of the educational process in this area. The process of formation of specialists in the field of inclusive education has ceased to be strictly academic in nature, the independent work of students has taken a clear shape, and the work of the tutor has intensified. The ongoing changes in the educational process in the context of inclusive education cannot but affect the effectiveness of the university learning process itself, as well as the development of the personality of each student and teacher. The psychological and pedagogical aspects of training specialists in the field of inclusive education, which require serious research, have been identified.


inclusive education, initial training, student-teachers, pandemic period

Psychological intervention for groups based on integrative psychotherapy model

Intervenția psihologică de grup prin prisma modelului de psihoterapie integrativă



This article summarizes the results of the study, that was made to follow the analysis of gender differences distribution, related to the adolescents attachment with their parents and its impact within their interraction with other significant persons. In this study, we present the psychological intervention program, based on the Integrative model in which the person is approached in all aspects of personal identity, of relating to oneself, to others and to the world. J. Bowlby (1988), mentions that, if our early relationships were problematic, then our future relationships might offer us another chance, by giving us the potential to love, feel and reflect, having the freedom that comes from a secure attachment.
The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the important role the secure attachment has in forming the relationships throughout the lifespan.


psychological intervention, integrative psychotherapy, personality, relationships


Educating children with mild intellectual disability in the online environment

Educația copiilor cu deficiență mintală ușoară în mediul online

Baciu (Pungilă) DAMARIS


The article contains a summary of the main problems encountered during distance education. The main challenges faced by teachers in special education, but also by their families are presented. The shift of special education to the online environment due to the covid-19 pandemic has led to the use of different methods and resources. One of the ways in which the adaptation to new methods and resources has been made is presented at the end of the article through a comparative analysis. It presents the traditional way of conducting a therapy session with children with mild mental disabilities and how it was conducted online.


special education, online education, covid-19, mental disabilities, resources

Education and personality in relation to visual impairment. Visual impairment during the Coronavirus pandemic

Educarea și personalitatea în raport cu deficiența de vedere. Deficiența de vedere pe timpul pandemiei de Coronavirus

Paula-Bianca SANDU, Andreia-Mihaela STANCU, Corina-Andreea ȘERBAN, Roberta-Nicoleta VASILE, Alexandra-Maria VOICU


This article focuses on identifying the differences between the personality of people with visual impairments and people without such disabilities, identifying the influences of Covid-19 pandemic on people with visual impairments and understanding the possibilities of alleviating their difficulties.
We also intended to highlight the daily struggles of the visually impaired. During this difficult period -the pandemic they went through a lot: they could not shop, they could not receive help from other people, because they had to keep their distance and they had to give up their jobs.


visual impairment, personality, education, pandemic, research

The effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on special education

Gabriela SAVA (Sandu)


The Covid-19 pandemic has affected children’s education in all respects. After the closure of schools and the
transition to online education, social differences and shortcomings in the education system highlighted several problems, including lack of teaching materials adapted for students with special educational needs, lack of digital infrastructure, lack of support teachers, inability to adapt to online school for children diagnosed with ADHD, epilepsy, autism. However, teachers, support teachers, parents and students sought and found solutions to meet the challenges, managing to lessen the impact of these completely new and unexpected situations.


special education, inclusive education, students with SEN, inclusion, online environment, support teacher, socialization, online school

Professional stress in special integrated education

Stresul profesional în învățământul special integrat

COMĂNEANU Maria-Marinela


The professional activity carried out by a school counselor teacher may seem like an easy job for some specialists, but for most of them, their job involves many difficulties. The professional stress of school counselors is experienced because their work requires face-to-face communication with people, activities that involve knowing, assessing and addressing various types of problems of all categories of students, who can be described as stable signs of maladaptation to school requirements, problems related to the control of their conduct.


professional stress, teacher, integrated special education, mainstream education, special education

The relationship between the time spent in family environment and preschool language development

Relația dintre timpul petrecut în mediul familial și dezvoltarea limbajului la copiii de vârstă preșcolară



The goal of this study was to identify and to assess the characteristic aspects regarding the preschool language and communication development depending on the quality and quantity of the allocated parental time, as well as on the characteristics of the family environment. The sample included 155 children aged 36 – 71 months old (M = 52.61, SD = 10.40) and their parents. The results of present research suggest that an increased level of parental involvement in structured activities predicts an increased level of language development, an increased level of time spent in familial environment predicts an increased level of language development, at the same time, the relationship between parental involvement in family learning activities is moderated by the chronological age of preschool children in the sense that at an early age, the effect of parental involvement in structured activities and time spent by parents with children on language development and the parents involvement in structured activities and the time spent by parents with children on extraverbal features is stronger compared to that related to older ages. Findings highlight the unique contributions of parental implication and the quality time on preschool language development.


preschool language development, parental involvement, socio-economic status, media exposure, quality and quantity parental time